With global warming, the summer heat is hotter than ever. As creatures of this planet, we all need to change and adapt to survive. In South Africa, the baboons found a new way to beat the summer heat by taking a dip in a family and resort pools.
Recently, there have been viral videos on the internet about fun-loving monkeys quietly going inside backyards and having their pool parties when humans are not around.
An owner of an exclusive retreat in Betty’s Bay, South Africa named Garth Bradley, released the first video on Facebook last May 14, 2019. According to him, he was in his office when he saw an alpha male baboon walking in his backyard.
He immediately rushed to check if the kitchen door is closed since he thought these baboons invaded his home in search of food. After a few minutes, he observed that the baboon and its young friend was playing in the pool. He was able to take a video of the primates.
Bradley said that this was the first time that the monkeys are in the pool. Usually, they would go in the backyard every other week to search for something to eat. The primates had a wonderful time in the pool for an estimated five minutes, and Bradley said that it was marvelous to watch.
Another video about the water-loving monkeys was uploaded on YouTube last May 16, 2019, by a family from Marloth Park, Northeastern South Africa. At first, they suspected that some strangers were using their pool at home when no one was around. They installed a camera to see who it was and to apprehend the intruders. But to their surprise, they caught a group of baboons having a short summer outing.
The videos may be fun to watch, and it shows us, humans, the playful side of baboons/Asian monkeys. But the fact that these monkeys decided to go to human territories to take a bath and search for food proves that their natural habitat is collapsing. Or, they thought that we humans intruded their natural habitats (during town expansions).
These goofy monkeys are facing some severe problems, and they need our help. Groups of Baboon that live near human settlements have lesser adult males compared to the ones who live in their natural territories. Since there are no natural predators, males are most likely killed when a direct conflict occurs between humans. This is because males are usually the ones who protect the whole group from danger. Experts have warned that the removal of male baboons can potentially lead to the population’s destruction.
Furthermore, killing males leads to more problems. New males can join the group which is mostly composed of biologically related females and their children from the previous Alpha male who has passed away. If this scenario occurs, the new male usually kills all of the children of the prior husband. A research reported that of all the baby monkeys born, 53% died within their first year. The male monkey does this type of behavior because males can mate sooner with females who don’t have an infant to take care.
Although some species of baboons are notorious troublemakers and can be dangerous to be around, we humans pose a more significant threat to them. According to reports, humans have taken over key areas where vast populations of baboons usually live. Currently, their population is decreasing.
In Cape Town, some baboons are infamous for bullying people and stealing their food. But when you think about it, with their natural home destroyed and their limited sources of food, aren’t they just doing what they can to adapt and survive?
So what can we do help them? We need to raise awareness that just like us, these monkeys are living in their traditional habitats. If we happened to have an unfriendly encounter with them, if possible, we should resort to non-lethal strategies.
We need to start respecting nature, always keep in mind that wild creatures will stay wild. Government-owned areas, private reserves, and parks must consider protecting these animals. Conservation efforts should be increased to protect specific species with lower population since Baboons are not certainly protected in the so-called protected areas.
Don’t feed wild baboons. Baboons are considered to be part of the South African heritage. We must do our part to help these goofy creatures so that the future generation can see them live and not only via textbooks or old videos.
Look: Exotic Pets Turned Invasive Pests
A recent study published in Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, a journal from the Ecological Society of America, documented how researchers gain more awareness in the dynamics of the exotic pet trade and the role it plays in introducing nonlocal and invasive vertebrates worldwide.
As exotic pets become more popular, we need to have a clearer understanding of the factors that affect the trade to minimize the threat of having a pet-to-pests invasion soon.
Lockwood, the lead author of the study, said that since the 1970s, the market for exotic pets is continuously growing and the amount of vertebrate animals that are traded globally is surprising, even to the experienced biologists. Over the past decades, the population of reptiles and marine fish significantly increased — caused by their viral popularity as exotic pets.
Researchers take a closer look at the socioeconomic and socioecological factors that affect the exotic pet trade of vertebrates (animals with the backbone; namely fishes, birds, mammals, amphibians and reptiles). The mentioned factors depend on the unique economic, social, regulatory, and cultural contexts of a particular country. There is an increasing and widespread demand for exotic pets worldwide, but it occurs mainly in developing countries like South America and Asia. In the United States, Australia, and the United Kingdom, more than half of all households have at least one pet.
What are exotic pets?
In the study, it is defined as “species without a long history of domestication that are legally captured from their native range or bred within facilities and sold to consumers as household companions,” and are kept for non-utilitarian reasons (characterized by or aiming at beauty or ornament rather than utility).
Lockwood explains that species of goldfish or monk parakeets are considered as common pets for decades. Other species appear in the market for only one or two years; after that, they disappear.
The reason for this dynamic is not yet known, but researchers noted that this might be because of some species are easy to take care and breed well in captivity (which makes them cost cheaper). She added that thousands of different species are sold yearly. If a small percentage will escape or be free, they are capable of forming wild populations.
Is it really bad if our former pets decided to form a big family in the wild?
Lockwood and her team said that invasive reptiles and amphibians could force local species into extinction.
For example, the red-eared sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans) are turtles popularly kept as pets in the United States. It is native to the south-central region of the US, but it has created non-native populations in other parts of the country. These turtles are the real-life counterparts of the Famous Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles.
The reasons why owners release exotic pet is not widely documented. But it includes difficulty in taking care of large, old, aggressive, or sick animals. Cute little animals don’t always stay the same; sometimes, they grow and live longer than the pet owners had expected. Most countries don’t have the proper documentation of imported pet species. Also, there are challenges in monitoring and regulating them; some animals are usually recorded as “unidentified” or wrongly identified.
Factors such as the popularity of owning exotic animals, the ease of buying exotic pets from websites, and the lack of adequately implemented regulations — made it possible for the species to spread not only in their original locations but also in other parts of the globe.
This increase the possibility of having invasions in the future. To avoid or minimize the chances of having an exotic pet invasion, we need to have a better understanding of the forces that affect the worldwide trade of exotic pets.
In conclusion, Lockwood said that first “we need to know the reasons why certain species are in the trade, or what factors lead them to escape or be released,” so that we can make the right policies. These policies should be able to make both sides happy. Some people are still free to love their exotic pets while minimizing the probability of invasion.
Baby Tiger Sharks Munch On Land Birds
Tiger sharks can eat anything — from dolphins, other sharks, sea turtles to rubber tires and other ocean trash, hence, nicknamed as the garbage cans of the sea. But recently, scientists discovered by analyzing the DNA of a shark’s barf that baby tiger sharks have a different diet. They documented that baby tiger sharks eat songbirds (such as sparrows, woodpeckers, and doves), and not the usual sea birds (seagulls or pelicans).
Kevin Feldheim, one of the co-authors of the study and led to the DNA analysis of the shark’s diet, said that “if these sharks with their tigerlike stripes see an easy target or meal, they will undoubtedly go for it.” But, he was shocked to learn that they’re eating songbirds. He added that this is one of the awesome projects since the discovery of DNA profiling.
Researchers from Mississippi State University studied the tiger sharks’ diet. They wrassle the 3 foot long sharks onto a boat, pump the shark’s stomachs, and examine the sample of its stomach contents. Don’t worry; no sharks are harmed in the process and were released afterward. Shockingly, out of the 105 sharks they’ve examined, 41 had bird remains in their stomachs.
However, it was difficult for scientists to determine what bird species the tiger sharks’ digested. As a solution, the team sought assistance with the Field Museum’s Pritzker Laboratory for Molecular Systematics and Evolution to analyze its DNA.
The team took the bird remains and used chemicals to break them down their primary molecular components. Then, they analyzed the DNA sequences found in the bird’s tissues. Afterward, they compared them to the available databases of bird’s DNA to know what species they are.
“We found out that none of them were seagulls, pelicans, cormorants, or other types of marine birds. They were all terrestrial birds that usually live in our backyards,” said Marcus Drymon, the paper’s lead author.
Moreover, this is not the first time that tiger sharks are known to eat birds. In Hawaii, some adult tiger sharks haunt baby albatrosses who are just learning to fly, says Feldheim. But this is the first time that we acquired scientific evidence that tiger sharks eat songbirds that usually live on land.
Feldheim added that the sharks hunt on songbirds since its easy to prey due to the species’ difficulties in traveling over the ocean. During migration, they’re exhausted, and sometimes they fall into the sea during a typhoon. Also, terrestrial birds are more appealing than seabirds because seabirds can handle themselves better in the water compared to songbirds.
What is the impact of this study?
It proves the importance of having DNA databases, which should be available for scientists. DNA can tell something that observation cannot.
Also, this study gives us a better understanding of tigers sharks. This information can somehow help us to protect them. According to Feldheim, all sharks currently facing some severe problems. We still don’t know how industrialized fishing affected them, but most of the top predator populations are continuously declining.
Although tiger sharks are notorious for being man-eaters, we humans pose a more significant threat. Based on National Geographic, most populations of tiger sharks are harvested for their fins, skin, and flesh. Their livers are a good source of vitamin A, and usually, it is processed into vitamin oils. In general, sharks take a long time to mature sexually and have low birth rates. Their population may also suffer due to overfishing. As of today, they are included in the near-threatened list of species.
Sharks are known to be the top predators, and they are essential in keeping the oceans in balance. They prey on the weak and prevent the potentially harmful fish populations from taking over a particular ecosystem. They are at risk of accumulating too many toxins from the prey they eat.
For example, plastics break down into microplastics — which are eaten by small fish. But these microplastics further break down into toxins that stay in the fishes’ system. This can cause sufficient harm to sharks if they’ve eaten it over time.
What can we do to help save sharks?
We need to stop buying shark products. We need to raise awareness that just like us, sharks are just living their own lives. They are acting like police offers, regulating the rules set by Mother Nature.
If sharks disappear in the world’s oceans, there will be negative consequences. Without them, at the top of the food chain, some population of aquatic creatures may also decline and suffocating algae blooms will increase. These algae blooms create toxins and can ruin coral reefs. We must do our part to save these creatures from extinction.
Look: Chimpanzees Eat Crabs For Survival
Apes eating bananas are cute and typical, but chimpanzees that chomp on crabs are too unusual. Today, researchers at the Department of Anthropology from the University of Zurich revealed for the first time that chimpanzees could eat crabs. The research finding aims to widen “our understanding of why aquatic fauna became more and more important as a source of nutrition in the course of human evolution.”
Researchers from Kyoto University observed how wild chimpanzees caught and preyed on fresh-water crabs in a rainforest in the Nimba Mountains in Guinea year-round. The finding somehow contradicts the common idea that anthropoid apes such as chimpanzees and gorillas, the closest species to humans do not eat aquatic animals.
A copy of the research findings was published Wednesday in an online website of the Journal of Human Evolution. The study reveals the first evidence which proves that non-human apes usually catch and eat aquatic fauna, said Kathelijne Koops, one of the researchers.
In the small and shallow rivers of the rainforest, the chimpanzees haunt for the crabs by scratching and beating up the riverbed with their fingers.
The said study began in 2012 when the team observed how chimpanzees ate river crabs at a water hole in the forests of Guinea in West Africa. To prove that such behavior of chimpanzees happened, the team set up camera traps at four water holes between 2012 and 2014 — this documented and recorded chimpanzees that eat crabs for almost 181 times.
The research team also discovered that these chimpanzees living in the rain forest in the Nimba Mountains of Guinea consumed freshwater crabs year-round. This means that non-human apes regularly catch and choose aquatic fauna as a source of food to survive.
Chimpanzees do eat crabs even though fruits are available. They searched for it in shallow streams in the mountainous rain forest region through either scratching or digging up the riverbed with their fingers. It is in the riverbed where these crabs were mostly found with high nutritional value.
Researchers explained that on rainy season, more river crabs appear on the area. Although, much to their surprise, researchers emphasized that there was no correlation between crab-fishing activity and the amount of monthly rainfall. Chimpanzees like to eat crabs regardless whether it’s rainy or dry season; where there’s not enough water in the streams where crabs can survive.
However, some curious scholars from another institute questioned whether these chimpanzees only rely on river crabs for primary food. Researchers at the Department of Anthropology emphasized, as a result of almost two years of observation, that chimpanzees eat more crabs when there are only a few ants available to munch. This means that aside from river crabs, chimpanzees also like to eat ants. Another possible explanation is that Chimpanzees like to eat crabs and ants because both contain the same nutritional value.
Furthermore, the researchers noticed that female chimpanzees and their young babies spend more time finding and eating crabs compared to adult males. The group of lactating and young female chimpanzees was the frequent consumers of river crabs. Their babies lined up and waited to be fed, while the younger ones — who understands the laborious work of finding crabs — came with their mothers to dig. Koops said that one of the possible explanations for this discovery is that crabs contain fatty acids and micronutrients that are good for both the mother and baby’s health.
What will be the impact of this study?
Chimpanzees are our closest living family in the animal kingdom. Past studies found that human ancestors ate fish, turtles, and other aquatic animals way back two million years ago when they left the comforts of the forest and decided to settle in the savanna. Matsuzawa, one of the researchers of this project, said that humans might have been eating aquatic animals since the earliest humans lived in forests for over four million years ago.
If chimpanzees eat river crabs, then it is possible that humans — as far as four million years ago — already ate aquatic organisms as a source of food to survive the drastic change in the environment.
The results of this study can help us understand that marine organisms are a vital source of nutrition, and it somehow helped in human evolution. The study presents an idea and a step towards finding out when and how humans began to eat aquatic animals.
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