NASA shared its latest discovery, and this time it does not talk about human exploration on Mars, Lunar landing, and possible life on another planet. Instead, its recent finding scares Astronauts, as it claims that the ISS is infested with bacteria that could harm space travelers.
A team of NASA researches, including an Indian-origin scientist has discovered that the surface inside the International Space Station (ISS) is littered with microbes, just like an ordinary public place on earth which threatens astronauts’ health at orbiting the laboratory. According to the study conducted, the knowledge on the microbial and fungal communities on the ISS can be used to develop safety precautions for future missions.
NASA confessed in the open access journal Microbiome, that specific microbes in indoor spaces on Earth have been shown to have negative implications on human health. This is also the same with what they have found in ISS surfaces, which can also create significant impact and will weaken the health status of spacemen on their long term space travel.
NASA added that the said microbes would help the space organization to develop and create ways, as well as, preventions on how to stop these bacteria from infecting every astronaut. Dr. Kasthuri Venkateswaran, NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and a corresponding author said that the discovery is necessary for the astronauts during spaceflight, as they have altered immunity and do not have access to the sophisticated medical interventions available on Earth.
Today, it is widely reported to understand the possible real danger spacemen will be facing throughout their journey outside earth; if the bacteria has not been identified earlier. The researchers, whose primary goal is to keep these explorers away from any potential harm including microbial invasion, used several techniques to analyze the surface of ISS.
They mainly used traditional culture techniques and gene sequencing methods to analyze surface samples collected in eight locations on the ISS, which includes the viewing window, toilet, exercise platform, dining table and sleeping quarters, during three flights across 14 months. This allowed researchers to examine if and how the microbial and fungal populations differed between locations and over time.
Significant results were delivered after the examination and made available to interpretation by the NASA people. The authors indicated that fungal communities were stable, meaning to say they remain unchanged throughout the entire duration of the test. On the other hand, microbial communities were similar across locations but changed over time.
Looking at the microbes, the researchers explained that these bacteria on ISS were mostly human-associated. The most noticeable bacteria were Staphylococcus, Pantoea, and Bacillus. Staphylococcus is a bacterium that typically occurs in clusters resembling grapes, inhabits the skin and mucous membranes usually, and may cause disease.
These bacteria commonly infect the skin, eyes, and urinary tract, and some produce toxins responsible for septicemia (known as blood poisoning), and food poisoning. They included organisms as well that are considered opportunistic pathogens on Earth, such as Staphylococcus aureus which is common in the nasal passage, and Enterobacter that is associated with the human gastrointestinal tract.
What is odd about the findings is that the microbes found are predominant on earth’s public places like gyms, offices, and hospitals which suggest that the ISS is similar to other built environments where the microbiome is shaped by human occupation, according to the study.
However, the researchers do not have a concrete idea whether these opportunistic bacteria could cause diseases in astronauts on the ISS – since it would depend on many factors including the health status of each and how these organisms function while in the space environment. So far, there are six astronauts on board the International Space Station, and their health conditions are reportedly in a good state.
The study provides the first comprehensive understanding of the bacteria and fungi found on surfaces in enclosed space systems. This is a great help and assistance for NASA to improve its safety measures to meet the requirement needed to survive in the thickest part of space on human exploration. Also, the detection of possible disease-causing organisms highlights the importance of further studies to examine how these ISS microbes function in the area.
The results also have a significant impact on human understanding of other confined built environments on earth such as clean rooms used in the pharmaceutical and medical industries. Since the microbes on NASA’s ISS are no different than what we have on Earth, humans will have a deeper comprehension of bacteria found in ordinary public places.
Kansas Mom Had Her Children Take Doses Of Industrial Bleach Or Miracle Mineral Solution (MMS) — The Police Response Raised Eyebrows
]ust when the public health community is starting to think that they have already got a little hold on the medical misinformation against vaccination, another pseudoscientific cure known as “Miracle Mineral Solution” or “MMS” is now gaining traction among different social media platforms, especially in Youtube and Facebook — as various “testimonials” are sprouting in support of this so-called miracle cure.
Miracle Mineral Solution or MMS promises to cure various diseases like autism, acne, HIV, hepatitis, flu, and malaria. It sounds well-intentioned except that MMS is chlorine dioxide, the scientific term for industrial bleach. These “testimonials” are advocating for parents to use industrial bleach to cure their children’s illness even against the warning of established health institutions regarding the potential health problems that taking in bleach inside one’s body could cause.
The Food and Drug Administration has warned that MMS “can cause serious harm to health” and said the agency “has received several reports of health injuries from consumers using this product, including severe nausea, vomiting, and life-threatening low blood pressure from dehydration.” According to the FDA, anyone who started administering this “cure” should stop immediately and “throw them all away.”
Youtuber promotes MMS based on experience with her own sons
One particular Youtuber has opened her channel to preach about the health benefits of MMS. Her name is Laurel Austin of Lenexa, Kansas. According to her videos, she has started feeding her children, whose four out of six of them has autism, with chlorine dioxide and she said that the “cure” has helped her children manage the symptoms of autism.
According to an NBC News report, the first time she fed one of her sons the bleach solution, she filmed the moment and shared it with her thousands of subscribers. Reporter Brandy Zadrozny described the video, writing that after the young man, who has autism, took the solution, “his arms seem to twist around one another involuntarily, and he screams into his forearm before taking a bite of a banana.”
Considering the predicament the mother is experiencing, having four children with autism, it was reported by various sources that by reviewing her social media accounts, it is easy to say that the mother has been trying different alternative cures to help her children. According to a review of her social media accounts and documents from Lenexa police department, Austin has given regular doses of chlorine dioxide to her two sons, aged 27 and 28.
The police and adult protective services did not do anything about it
According to reports, the father of the children, Bradley Austin, has been trying to have his ex-wife stop from administering the chemicals to his sons since he found out what she was doing in January. However, according to reports, notwithstanding the statements made by Bradley Austin to the authorities, the Lenexa police department and Kansan adult protective services decided not to do anything regarding the matter. The dismissal from law enforcement reportedly baffled Bradley, who told NBC News, “I just want her to stop.”
In defence of the police department, they said that following Bradley Austin’s reports regarding the MMS usage of his ex-wife against their children, a police officer has consulted with a pharmacist at a state poison control center who said it was unsafe. Then police visited Austin’s house where she said she was following the chlorine dioxide protocol of the Kerri Rivera, a prominent promoter of the treatment, which is not a medical professional.
Rivera has been very enthusiastic in championing the supposed health benefits of MMS since 2012. She even wrote a book regarding how the use of chlorine dioxide can purportedly cure autism, a book that she initially offered in Amazon, but the tech giant decided to remove it from its inventory in March citing the harmful contents of the said book. Rivera was also very active in attending interviews and webinars in Youtube to preach about anti-vaccination ideologies and other conspiracy theories. In one occasion, Austin was interviewed alongside Rivera regarding the effects of Miracle Mineral Solutions on her sons with autism.
Furthermore, police documents have shown Austin provided that police officers with several links to Rivera’s contents about chlorine dioxide protocol, and online articles from Autism Research Institute, which promotes the widely debunked notion that vaccines cause autism. A police officer wrote about the articles in the report saying, “This legitimizes the claim by Laurel of her use of MMS CLO2 as a holistic treatment approach.”
The documents also revealed that the police reviewed a list of supplements meant for one of the sons, which advised he take 16 doses of chlorine dioxide treatment each day, one every hour. This was reportedly signed and stamped by a primary care physician at Kansas University’s MedWest Family Medicine Clinic, Sarita Singh.
In her defense, Singh said previously that she approved the chlorine dioxide treatment because she believes it is “benign and not toxic.”
Nonetheless, when asked regarding the issue, both the hospital where Singh is on duty as well as Kansas adult protective services refused to comment citing that the medical cases of Austin’s children are confidential.
New York Moves To Rule Out Religious Exemption For Vaccines
In the face of the worst measles outbreak in the country within the past 25 years, New York has decided to make necessary immunizations in schoolchildren, citing that religious exemption to vaccinizations can no longer be accepted.
In the past, legislation has allowed parents to reason against vaccines due to religious reasons. They have cited that it is their religious freedom to opt out of the science-based system in exchange for their beliefs.
The decision was made Thursday with a Democrat-led Senate and Assembly. The decision has made all schoolchildren take the first round of immunization shots—for those who have opted out—as a requirement before enrollment.
Furthermore, schoolchildren wishing to enroll in the upcoming school year are given up to 30 days to complete the first dose of each required immunization.
The newly-signed measure was met with mixed reactions from the hundreds of people who flocked the streets of New York. Some expressed that it was about time that the government had taken legislative action towards addressing the measles outbreak given that the problem is spiraling out of control. Moreover, some cited that religious beliefs have been used as a counter-action to opt out from vaccinations, which are due to rampant misinformation regarding the vaccine to cause other side effects.
Meanwhile, anti-vaxxers have complained against the measure citing that their religious freedom is being taken away by the vague impression that public health is in a state of fear due to measles.
New York’s Governor Andrew Cuomo, a Democrat who signed the measure told reporters that he believes public health — and the need to protect those who cannot get vaccinated because for medical reasons — outweighs the concerns about religious freedom.
“I understand freedom of religion,” he said. “I have heard the anti-vaxxers’ theory, but I believe both are overwhelmed by the public health risk.”
Bronx Democrat Jeffrey Dinowitz, the bill’s Assembly sponsor added, “I’m not aware of anything in the Torah, the Bible, the Koran or anything else that suggests you should not get vaccinated.” Moreover, “If you choose to not vaccinate your child, therefore potentially endangering other children … then you’re the one choosing not to send your children to school.”
On the other hand, New York is not completely absolving reasons to opt out of vaccinations. Particularly, the government will still allow children to skip taking the required shots for reasons citing medical concerns (some people are medically compromised and cannot take vaccines or immunizations due to risks from detrimental side effects.) These people can be those with compromised immune systems such as HIV or those who are allergic to said medications, to name a few.
Recently, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention reported an alarmingly increasing number of measles cases in the United States — gaining the highest incidence for the past 25 years.
Moreover, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported about 971 cases of measles in 26 states in the US from January 1 to May 30 of this year — threatening the nation’s elimination status.
The report also indicated that the spike in measles outbreaks was centered in hotspots such as Washington and New York. Also, since the disease is common among children, most of the cases reported are from unvaccinated school-age children.
The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) told BBC that “If these outbreaks continue through summer and fall, the United States may lose its measles elimination status. That loss would be a huge blow for the nation and erase the hard work done by all levels of public health.”
The issue is also magnified with misinformation that is being widely spread against the measles vaccine—which prompted Facebook to finally take action and try to mitigate false information that is widespread across its platform.
“These Groups and Pages will not be included in recommendations or predictions when you type into Search,” Monika Bickert, Facebook’s vice president of global policy management, said in a statement. She added that when ads that include misinformation about vaccinations are found, “we will reject them.”
With New York’s move, similar exemptions are still allowed in 45 states, though lawmakers in several of them have introduced their own legislation to eliminate the waiver.
California removed personal belief vaccine exemptions for children in both public and private schools in 2015. Maine ended its religious exemption earlier this year. Mississippi and West Virginia also do not allow religious exemptions.
MailChimp Joins Other Tech Giants In Fighting Against Anti-Vaxx Propaganda
As the calls of governments and public health advocates against anti-vaccination content proliferation online, more and more online platforms are starting to listen. This time, MailChimp, the famous email service company has banned the spread of anti-vaxx contents using its platform.
MailChimp, which recently announced its move to become a more holistic platform, has also recently taken out different anti-vaccination accounts from its email service platform as part of its renewed commitment against the proliferation of anti vaxx rhetoric.
According to the company, it has started removing anti-vaccination activists from its platform and will no longer allow them to be used as an email service for any anti-vaxx propaganda. The move to ban anti-vaxx accounts in its platforms follow the series of steps from other tech giants against the proliferation of anti vaxx contents on their networks.
The company has started implementing their new policy last week quietly and said that they have already removed a considerable number of anti-vaxx propaganda accounts.
“We trust the world’s leading health authorities, like the CDC, WHO, and the AAP, and follow their guidance when assessing this type of misuse of our platform,” the spokesperson said, referring to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the World Health Organization and the American Academy of Pediatrics.
The advent of social media has allowed the proliferation of anti-vaxx propaganda online and has made it easier for those who have been campaigning against vaccination to reach more and more people; building the social media hemispheres the most critical tool of health misinformation.
2019 is the year the tech world heard calls against anti-vaxx rhetoric
This year, the echoing calls of different governments, public health institutions, and advocates for the tech world to respond to the growing epidemic of misinformation have seen various tech giants reacting positively. Earlier this year, Amazon has removed anti-vaxx documentaries from its Amazon Prime services.
The decision from Amazon to remove anti-vaccination contents from it platform follows a letter sent by Democrat Congressman Adam Schiff has sent a letter to Amazon’s CEO Jeff Bezos questioning why its online platform has become an enabler of misinformation regarding vaccination and asking them to help curb the spread of anti-vaccination content. The letter questions why Amazon is serving anti-vaccination content in its online store and accepting paid advertisements for anti-vaxx media.
“Every online platform, including Amazon, must act responsibly and ensure that they do not contribute to this growing public-health catastrophe,” Schiff wrote.
Similarly, a letter from the same lawmaker has urged Facebook to take a step against the proliferation of anti-vaxx rhetoric in the popular social media platform. Facebook began to stop advertising that spread “vaccine hoaxes” and said it planned to reduce the visibility of vaccine misinformation shared on its platform.
Facebook has become one of the most potent tools anti-vaxx advocates has to spread misinformation amongst members of anti-vaxx groups, which reports suggest include members in hundreds of thousands.
Twitter and Youtube also joined the ranks of Amazon and Facebook in curbing health and vaccine misinformation in their own social media platform. Twitter started directing users who actively searched for tweets related to vaccination to a post from the United States Department of Health and Human Services, linking them to several reliable sources of health information instead of anti-vaccination propaganda.
This follows the announcement made by the social media giant that it will be launching a new tool to help fight the rampant misinformation by prompting users to head to vaccines.org, a website ran by the Department of Health and Human Services.
“We’re committed to protecting the health of the public conversation on Twitter,” the blog post read. “Ensuring individuals can find information from authoritative sources is a key part of that mission.”
Youtube, too, has started demonetizing contents that proliferate anti-vaccination propaganda in the popular video streaming website. Earlier this year, Youtube confirmed that it would be removing ads from anti-vaccination videos citing that they are ‘dangerous and harmful’ materials.
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